Left Mosern on Monday, September 16th and arrived in our latest AirBnB in Bischofswiesen, Germany about 3 p.m. When we left the apartment we decided to make a stop at the small lake just below the village and took about a 20 minute walk before heading off. We also see someone paragliding and watched them land on the golf course across the street from the park.
We decided to take the smaller country roads to get from Mosern, Austria to Bischofswiesen, Germany as we were in no hurry. A wise decision as we travelled through some beautiful mountain valleys. Trip took us about five hours with stops along the way. Stopped in the town of Wattens, Austria for coffee. This town is the heart of the Swarovski crystal empire.
As I have mentioned before, always a bit of a challenge finding a new place. Our GPS takes us close to the apartment, but we are not paying close enough attention and we pass right by it. A couple of U-turns and we finally arrive. Not sure where to park, so we just leave the car in the parking lot. Find the lock box and finally find our apartment, located on the first floor of a very Alpine looking apartment block. Need to park the car in the right location.
We chose this town as is some 40 minutes from Salzburg and we wanted to be in the countryside to explore some of the alpine towns surrounding this area and Salzburg. So, we will be crossing back and forth from Germany to Austria several times in the next three days.
We get settled and find a local grocery store in the nearby town of Berchtesgaden. We decide to eat in, so we come back to the apartment and enjoy a glass of wine out on the deck.
Tuesday, September 17th, we head out to Salzburg for a walking tour that we have arranged. We meet our guide Peter, an Austrian gentleman in his ’70’s, who is dressed in traditional Alpine clothing. He tells us that he has been leading the “Salzburg Historical Walking Tour” for fourteen years. During his lifetime he also lived in the U.S. and in Australia. He also mentions that he visited Toronto. We are ten people on the tour (U.S citizens, Australians and we four Canadians). A nice size group so you can keep close to Peter and hear everything he is telling us.
A little history of Salzburg. The name Salzburg means “salt fortress”. Ancient settlements have been dated going back to 15 BC when the Celts were in this region. They were looking for copper but also found salt. We know that salt was used as a currency in ancient times. St. Rupert established the first Christian kingdom and founded St. Peter’s church and monastery around 700 AD. Gradually successive bishops increased their power and eventually were given the titles of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Salzburg’s most influential archbishop, spearheaded the total baroque makeover of the city. He fell from power after losing a fierce battle over the salt trade against the rulers of Bavaria.
During the Napoleonic Wars, Salzburg came under the rule of France and Bavaria. In 1816 it became part of the Austrian Empire. Salzburg historic Altstadt (old town) became a Unesco World Heritage Site in 1997…another one for my list. Robin and I had visited here some 30 years ago.
Salzburg is the fourth largest city in Austria and is know for its Baroque architecture. My guide book says the joke in Salzburg is ” If it’s Baroque, don’t fix it”. The two biggest money makers for this city are anything related to “Mozart” or “The Sound of Music”. The city is built along the Salzach River which appears a milky green in colour. Our guide tells us that the colour comes from the limestone mountains. Salt was transported via the river. Today only one salt mine is still in production in Austria and it is located in Hallstatt which we hope to visit later this week. Peter says that Austria still wants to produce its own salt as they do not want to become to dependent on other countries. The mine is probably running at a deficit but that is not the issue.
Peter tells us that the population of Salzburg is 150,000 and they have ten million tourists a year……yikes!
We start our tour in the newer part of Salzburg near the Schloss Mirabell. Peter tells us that this part of Salzburg was badly damaged during a big fire in 1818, so many of the building here were rebuilt. The train station is also on this side of the river. During WWll the allies bombed the train station. They would get their bearings from the Hohensalzburg cliff top fortress which was in direct line to the train station. About 40% of the city was damaged during this war.
We cross the street to visit the gardens of Schloss Mirabell. These gardens were the location of many of the scenes from “The Sound of Music”…..no, we do not break into singing! Peter tells us that the flowers in the garden are changed three times a year. Some of the marble statues in the garden are already turning black due to pollution. Peter tells us that they were cleaned only three years ago and they are already turning black. A side note….The four of us had a discussion about this when we got back to our apartment that evening. I asked, why would these marble statues be turning black only after three years. Robin commented on the number of tourists buses and D & D talked about the amount of houses still being heated by wood. Guess this is the reason why. We all wonder what the air quality would be like during the winter when everyone is heating their homes with wood fireplaces.
The Palace itself was built in 1606 in a Baroque style then rebuilt in a classic style by Prince-Archbishop Wolf Dietrich to impress his mistress Salome Alt. He went on to have 15 children with her. One must remember that in those days, Austria was ruled by the church and it was not frowned upon by the church for the clergy to have relations. We go into the palace to view one of the famous rooms where many couples get married. In high season Peter tells us that weddings take place in this room every 20 minutes. We take a quick peek into the room as a wedding just finished and we get told we must leave as another wedding is about to take place. This building now houses the City Hall.
Next to the palace is the modern building of the Mozarteum Universitat, the music faculty of Salzburg. Peter tells us that graduates from this music school are able to join a major orchestra anywhere in the world. They teach all aspects of music including voice. On the other side of the gardens is the Marionette Theatre who put on a Sound of Music performance. Peter tells us that it is very popular and well attended….not our thing! There is something creepy about puppets and marionettes!
We then walk by the Mozart residence where Amadeus composed some 150 pieces of music. From Salzburg, Mozart moved to Vienna where he died. Peter tells us that he was basically destitute when he died and was buried in a paupers grave with 5 other souls…..no one knows for sure which is his burial site.
The next house that we view from the exterior is Christian Doppler’s home. He studied mathematics and physics in Salzburg. Definition of Doppler effect as per internet. “Doppler effect, the apparent difference between the frequency at which sound or light waves leave a source and that at which they reach an observer, caused by relative motion of the observer and the wave source. ” Today it is used in astronomical studies and medical tests.
We then cross the Makartsteg pedestrian bridge, also known as the “Love Locks Bridge” to get from the new town to the old town. As in other cities the metal on the side of the bridge has been filled with locks with peoples initials. Very similar to what is happening in cities throughout the world. The last time we were in Paris, they were cutting locks off the Pont Neuf bridge. Here in Salzburg, Peter tells us that they have come up with quite a simple solution. Instead of having steel fencing on the side of the bridge they use mesh. When the locks fill the mesh they simply remove the mesh from the side of the railings and all the locks come off with the mesh. They then sell the metal to a metal recycler and get money back.
Peter goes on to tell us that during the rule of the Prince Archbishops, they set up various monasteries so that they could attract monks that could read and write. Various sects of monks were tasked with different duties. The Benedictine monks taught, The Capuchins’s looked after the ill and poor and the Augustine built a brewery.
When Robin and I heard about the Augustine Brewery, we remembered that our son Rich had told us about the brewery…..more to come!
We walk a little further through the old town and come across a mural on one of the ancient walls. The mural depicts a man washing a cow. Peter tells us the legend of the “Salzburger Stierwascher”. In the middle ages, the castle was under siege and the ruler wanted to show that they had lots of food supplies. So a few times a day they would parade the one cow they had around the fortress walls; but every time they would parade the cow they would have painted it a different colour. They the “Stierwascher” would wash the cow and paint it a different colour. This would give the pretence that they had lots of cows. How ingenious!
Peter also told us that one of the co-founders of “Red Bull”, an Austrian, has a home in Salzburg and that he has been very generous to the city of Salzburg. Not only does he support racing apparently he has donated millions of dollars to the Universities and to other philanthropic causes. Apparently he donated 75 million Euro to the University last year.
As we are walking around the old town, we walk through arcades/alleys that lead to other streets. Peter tells us that these thoroughfares are called “through streets”. An easy way to get around without having to go around full blocks…..makes sense. Another interesting fact that he points out is dates that we see painted under the roofs of buildings. For example the earliest date shown would be the original date of construction and subsequent dates would be those of updates/remodelling. He also points out all of the shop signs. We have seen these in most small towns in Europe. The signs will depict what business is being run in that specific location. So a hairdresser would have a depiction of someones hair being cut and a bookshop would have a sign shaped as a book. This was done so that illiterate people could tell what type of business was located in that shop. OK…..I just misspelt “illiterate”….funny!
Then we come across Mozart’s birthplace. This house is in a Rococo style on the back and much simpler style on the front of the house; not sure why. One can see an old system of bells on the front of the house with wires leading to various floors. These served as doorbells. Peter tells us that they were disconnected years ago as everyone was ringing the bells….oh..tourists!
Enter another square where we see yet another Baroque church. Peter tells us that there are 72 parishes in Salzburg, all catholic. Each parish has at least one service per week. Then to the Festival Hall which is used for operas and concerts. Salzburg is famous for its summer musical festival.
We then see St. Peter’s Abbey in another square. Also in this square is a restaurant which has operated since 803 AD, the Stiftskeller St. Peter. It was originally run by the monks. It is said to be the oldest restaurant in Europe. Peter tells us that if patrons drank too much, they could always confess their sins.
Most of the churches we have seen on this tour have been built in the Baroque style. Peter refers to these as having “curvy steeples” while the few Gothic style churches have steeples that “reach to the skies”. We see the outside of the Salzburg Dom (cathedral). The first inauguration of the cathedral was in the year 774. It then burnt as it had a wooden roof and the second inauguration was in 1628. The dome caved in at one point and was rebuilt in 1959.
Our last stop is Mozart square where one sees the famous Mozart statue. Today they are setting up the square with stalls and rides for the St. Rupert festival which will be happening this weekend.
Our tour with Peter has been great. We loved his little anecdotes, he made this historic tour of Salzburg so worth while.
During our tour today we saw lots of Belgium football (soccer) fans as their team was playing against Salzburg. We find out that the game isn’t starting until 8 pm and the fans are already drinking beer at 11:30 in the morning. As we were leaving town, we saw lots of police vehicles getting “ready for action”.
After the tour we decide to make our way to the Augustine Brewery (Augustiner Braustubl). It is about a 20 minute walk from where we are and we have already walked for 2 hours on our tour. We stop along the river for a rest. The monks at this brewery have been making beer since 1621. Finally get to the Brewery only to find out that it is not opening till 3 pm….how disappointing.
We head back into the old town and just across the street from the brewery we see a little pub. Guess what? They only sell the Augustiner beer, which has no preservatives. We all have a beer and for lunch another bratwurst and sauerkraut for Denis and I and Debbie and Robin have potatoes with theirs. Denis says its the best beer he has had on this trip….so far!
We comment that sometimes the most unplanned things are the most wonderful experiences. Had a wonderful lunch and good beer in a wonderful small pub with an intimate small balcony. Denis and I start to tell stories of when we grew up and we are laughing. At one point (our family will appreciate this) Denis and I are laughing so hard that we can hardly talk!
After lunch we make our way back to the parkade, but I insist on a coffee before heading out as I am driving back to our apartment, about 40 minutes from Salzburg and I had a small beer for lunch….good decision. Debbie navigates back home while the two guys have naps in the back seat!
Another full day….weather is great….life is good!
It is now Wednesday, September 18th and it is Debbie’s birthday. What have I planned for today….a tour of Hitler’s Aerie in Berchtesgaden….aren’t I thoughtful.
Prior to heading off on the tour we stop in the small town of Berchtesgaden only five minutes down the hill from our apartment. Stroll through the old town and must say that the shops in this small town are incredible. The shoe stores have such different styles, absolutely lovely. We travel with carry-on; so the shoes are staying in the store.
We stop in a small “backerei” for coffee and a pastry. We buy sandwiches for our lunch and head off to meet our tour.
We drive down into the town and our meeting place is just across the train station. We had booked our tickets for this tour prior to leaving Canada; good thing, the tour bus is full. As we are leaving the town, the guide tells us that the train station was built for Hitler and at the time was the largest train station in the area. No redeeming features in this train station. She points out an arch on one of the sides of the station, which was Hitler’s private entrance. When the US forces arrived in this area, apparently they found 3 rail cars in a tunnel full of artwork that had been taken by Goering.
Following is an excerpt from the company’s website.
” Starting with a brief account of Hitler’s life, the bus takes you up steep mountain roads to Obersalzberg, a tiny community above Berchtesgaden. Here the history of Obersalzberg’s takeover by the Nazi Party and Martin Bormann’s transformation of the mountain into Hitler’s Southern Headquarters will be told. During the driving tour you will view some original Third Reich buildings dating back to when the area was Hitler’s second seat of government. Within the former compound, you’ll catch glimpses of buildings that were used as Albert Speer’s home, Speer’s architectural studio, Martin Bormann’s model farm, Nazi Party headquarters, the Platterhof’s theater, SS-Officers’ housing, Göring’s adjutancy, State Security Service headquarters and the location of Hitler’s home, the Berghof, (no longer standing today). The description of Obersalzberg and the historic importance of Hitler’s Berghof in world history will be made easy to understand with the use of original photographs and a model of the compound’s main buildings.”
Our guide relays a glimpse of Hitler’s life. He was interested in art and as a young man had applied to the Vienna School of Fine Art, but was turned down as his paintings were “dead”. It is said that he sold painted postcards to make a living and that he lived in apartments for single men. It is in one of these homes that he developed his political thoughts. He moved to Munich to escape having to serve his military time in the Austrian army, he was Austrian. Hitler said he did not like the politics of Austria. He was brought back to Austria, but he was exempted having to serve as he wasn’t physically fit.
Hitler volunteered for the German military during WW1 and worked as a messenger. He then joined the German Labour party and he continued to rise up the echelons of the party. At one point, Hitler was tried for treason for trying to overthrow the government and was to serve five years in prison; but apparently only spent nine months in prison. While in prison he wrote part of Mein Kampf. The rest is history!
Our guide goes on to tell us that Hitler spent about 75% of his time at these southern headquarter’s making many major decisions here. When the war started he spent most of his time in Berlin. Any traffic up the mountain was strictly controlled. The road up the mountain is certainly an engineering feat. The road is very narrow, very steep and rises quickly. But must say, the views of the valley below were quite spectacular…..not enjoyed by everyone though!
We are in a “tourist bus” until we reach mid way up the mountain where we visit the bunkers and the museum. We walk into the bunkers that are built in the mountain. The bunkers had offices, filing rooms, ventilation shafts, quarters where people could live, if need be, toilet facilities, storage rooms and tunnels throughout the mountain that led to various outer buildings. Very cool in these bunkers, but during the Nazi presence, these bunkers were heated. The electricity in the tunnels were generated by a submarine engine which was located in one of the bunkers.
Many buildings on the mountain; barracks for 2,000 soldiers, homes for Hitler and other high ranking officials. There was also a large hotel built for officials and their families to take vacations. The mountain even had a school, a theatre that could sear 2,000 people, a post office and a grocery store. They had everything to be self sufficient on this mountain. We are told that there was even an underground shooting range where the SS would practice. This was so that people would not know what was on the mountain. We are also told that when the rock was removed to make the tunnels/bunkers, it would be shipped further away, so the extent of this complex was not readily apparent.
The picture above (bottom right) shows the tunnel that one enters to reach the very top of the mountain, where the workers built a tea house for Hitler. Once you go through the tunnel, you arrive at an elevator, which takes you up the rest of the way to the teahouse. The inside of the elevator is all polished brass and was beautiful, but you are not allowed to take pictures of it. Cloud cover at the very top, so the views were better fro the central point.
At one time there was 6,000 workers on the mountain. Mainly workers from Italy, Poland, Austria and other countries where tradespeople had special skills. They apparently even had a brothel for the foreign workers.
The museum covers a lot of the same material we saw in Berlin, but a good reminder. A section on “The Führer”, the importance to the Nazi party of a “National Community”, the Nazi party’s “Racial Policy” and finally a section of the Nazi “Terror Apparatus”.
We then get on a local bus which takes us to the top of the mountain. From Wikipedia – “At the top of the mountain is the “Kehlsteinhaus “(known as the Eagle’s Nest in English-speaking countries) is a Third Reich-era building erected atop the summit of the Kehlstein, a rocky outcrop that rises above the Obersalzberg near the town of Berchtesgaden. It was used exclusively by members of the Nazi Party for government and social meetings. This tea house was visited on 14 documented instances by Adolf Hitler, who disliked the location due to his fear of heights, the risk of bad weather, and the thin mountain air.” He did however spend time in his house lower down on the mountain.
The local buses that go from the mid point to the top of the mountain have been specially built to go up the steep and curvy road. They are lower to the ground, have four brake systems and are overall smaller than a regular bus. We ran into an older American couple who told us that they had been up to the Eagle’s nest some 40 years ago. At the time they were very concerned with getting back down the hill on the bus and they walked around and took the bus where they felt the bus driver looked for the oldest bus driver!
Our guide told us that Hitler’s house, which was still standing at the end of the war, was totally demolished. They say this was done to stop “Brown Tourism”; stop the site from becoming a shrine.
Another very interesting tour which we really enjoyed. We head back to the apartment and later on go out for dinner at a local restaurant Gasthof zum Neuhaus which was established in 1576. We celebrated Debbie’s birthday on this wonderful evening. Great food and great company. The waiter brought us each a glass of Schnapps’ to celebrate Debbie’s birthday; a nice touch.
Have to say that European appliances always amaze me. In the apartment that we are now renting they have an appliance that is a coffee maker, a kettle and a toaster all in one. Simply amazing!
On Thursday, the 19th we head off to Hallstatt. Robin and I had been here a couple of years ago, but really wanted Debbie and Denis to see this wonderful little village built along a lake and against the mountainside, which is a Unesco World Heritage Site.
On the way to Hallstatt we took the back roads……some very narrow where you have to pull over to let another car by. Having said this, absolutely beautiful countryside. Villages dot the mountainside, cows grazing in the fields and beautiful blue skies to look at.
The region is a World Unesco Heritage Site since 1997.
The number of tourists here in the town is overwhelming and this is classified as the shoulder season. My travel book says that the population of Hallstatt is only 790 people. The town is set on the Hallstatter See (lake). Would hate to see this place in the summer. Dozens of large tourist buses sit in the various parking lots. We stop at a small cafe for a pastry and coffee.
We then drive back toward our apartment and make a stop at the small town of St.Gilgen which is only some 29 kms from Salzburg. This town is much quieter than St. Wolfgang on the other side of the lake which is much more touristy.
A lovely day out in the country, mountain and lake district; absolutely beautiful. We eat in tonight.
On Friday morning we catch the train to Vienna. We head off from our apartment, return the rental car and walk to the train station..all went very smoothly. Onto our next chapter……Vienna for 3 days.